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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:yjzbjlzs.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加(jia)工中心吗?——加(jia)工工件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)类型(xing)的(de)选(xuan)定需要(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围和设备价格等因(yin)素,根据所选(xuan)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)具有以(yi)下特征,则应选(xuan)择卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面以(yi)上(shang)(shang)的(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径(jing)向辐射状排列(lie)的(de)孔系、面,如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)等,应选(xuan)择卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)位置精(jing)度要(yao)(yao)(yao)求较高,宜选(xuan)用高精(jing)密卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)在一(yi)次(ci)装(zhuang)夹中(zhong)需要(yao)(yao)(yao)完成多面加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择立卧(wo)复合(he)(he)式(shi)五面加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。当然,上(shang)(shang)述各点也不是(shi)绝对的(de),一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面是(shi)由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)正(zheng)朝着复合(he)(he)化方(fang)(fang)向发展,另一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面选(xuan)型(xing)时要(yao)(yao)(yao)综合(he)(he)考虑(lv)生(sheng)产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)(yao)求和设备资金等因(yin)素,要(yao)(yao)(yao)以(yi)性(xing)价比来衡(heng)量选(xuan)型(xing)方(fang)(fang)案的(de)合(he)(he)理性(xing)。

建议:采购用户(hu)需要根据加工(gong)(gong)对象、加工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺、加工(gong)(gong)范围等(deng)特(te)征来确定是否使用卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心以及使用什么(me)样的卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺(chi)寸

这是卧(wo)(wo)式加工中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)主参数,主要(yao)取决于典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)廓尺(chi)寸(cun)、装(zhuang)夹方式等(deng)(deng)。应选择比(bi)(bi)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件外(wai)廓尺(chi)寸(cun)稍(shao)大一些的(de)(de)(de)(de)工作(zuo)台(tai)(tai),以便留出安装(zhuang)夹具所需的(de)(de)(de)(de)空间,保证零(ling)件在其(qi)上面(mian)能(neng)够顺利(li)装(zhuang)夹,此外(wai)还应考虑工作(zuo)台(tai)(tai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)承载能(neng)力、T形槽数量和尺(chi)寸(cun)等(deng)(deng),小尺(chi)寸(cun)的(de)(de)(de)(de)比(bi)(bi)较通用,比(bi)(bi)如站内的(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式加工中心(xin)MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)(deng)。

建议:目前市(shi)场上的(de)卧式(shi)加工中心工作台尺(chi)寸多(duo)为1000以(yi)下的(de),能(neng)够满足(zu)大多(duo)数用(yong)户的(de)需求。

(2)坐标轴(zhou)行程

最基本的(de)坐标轴(zhou)是X、Y、Z三轴(zhou),其行程和工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台尺(chi)寸(cun)(cun)有相应的(de)比例关(guan)系,工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台面(mian)的(de)大小基本上确定(ding)了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)空间的(de)大小。如个(ge)别零(ling)件(jian)的(de)尺(chi)寸(cun)(cun)大于卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin)行程时,则必须(xu)要(yao)求零(ling)件(jian)的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域处于机床的(de)行程范围(wei)之内,此外还(hai)要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)零(ling)件(jian)是否与机床交(jiao)换刀具的(de)空间干涉、与机床防(fang)护罩等(deng)(deng)附件(jian)发生(sheng)干涉等(deng)(deng)系列问题(ti)。而对(dui)(dui)需要(yao)多轴(zhou)联动(dong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin) (如增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)回转坐标A、B、C或(huo)附加(jia)(jia)坐标U、V、W),如四轴(zhou)、五轴(zhou)联动(dong)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心(xin),这就需要(yao)特殊订货(huo),同时必须(xu)对(dui)(dui)相应配套的(de)编程软件(jian)、测量手段以及机床价格等(deng)(deng)有全面(mian)的(de)考(kao)虑(lv)和安排(pai)。

建议:采购用户(hu)需要(yao)根据加(jia)工工件规格选择不同坐标轴行程的卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心,多轴联动需要(yao)特殊定制。

(3)主轴电动机(ji)功率(lv)与转矩(ju)

它反(fan)映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心的(de)(de)(de)切削效(xiao)率,也从一个侧面(mian)反(fan)映(ying)了(le)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心的(de)(de)(de)切削刚性和机床整体刚度。主轴电动机功率在同(tong)(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心上可以有(you)各(ge)种不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)配置,同(tong)(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)(de)(de)主轴转速不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工中心,主轴电动机功率可以相差很大。

建议:采购用户应根据自(zi)身典型(xing)零件毛坯(pi)余量大小、切削能力 (单位时间(jian)金属(shu)切削量)、要求达到(dao)的加(jia)工(gong)精(jing)度、实际能配置(zhi)的刀具等因(yin)素(su)综(zong)合选择(ze)。

(4)主(zhu)轴转(zhuan)速与进(jin)给(ji)速度

需(xu)要(yao)高速(su)切削(xue)或超低速(su)切削(xue)时,应关注(zhu)主轴的(de)转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)范围。特别是(shi)高速(su)切削(xue)时,既要(yao)有(you)高的(de)主轴转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su),同时也要(yao)具备与主轴转(zhuan)(zhuan)速(su)相匹配的(de)进给速(su)度(du)。目前卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)高速(su)化趋势发(fa)展很快,主轴从每分钟(zhong)几千转(zhuan)(zhuan)到(dao)几万转(zhuan)(zhuan),直线坐标快速(su)移动速(su)度(du)从10—20/min上升到(dao)80m/min以上,当然其功能(neng)部件如电(dian)主轴、直线电(dian)动机、直线滚动导轨、主轴轴承(cheng)等(deng)及相配套的(de)光栅尺、刀具等(deng)附件价格也都相应上升,甚至很昂(ang)贵。

建(jian)议:采(cai)购用户必(bi)须根(gen)据自身的(de)技(ji)术能力和(he)配套能力合(he)理作出卧(wo)式加工中心的(de)合(he)理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以根据被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的(de)工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果来确定(ding)所需(xu)数量(liang)(liang),通(tong)常以典型零(ling)件(jian)在一次装夹中所需(xu)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)数量(liang)(liang)来确定(ding)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)的(de)容量(liang)(liang),卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心以选用40把(ba)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)左右的(de)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)为宜。同(tong)时要关注最大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)直径与长度以及最大刀(dao)(dao)(dao)具(ju)重(zhong)量(liang)(liang)等。用于FMC或(huo)FMS的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心,应选择大容量(liang)(liang)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku),甚至配置(zhi)可交换刀(dao)(dao)(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普通(tong)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)选择(ze)40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库即(ji)够(gou)用,用于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)应(ying)选择(ze)大容(rong)量刀(dao)库。

3我需(xu)要选用什么精度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心?——精度(du)的(de)选定

加工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)等级主(zhu)要(yao)根据典(dian)型(xing)零件关键部位的(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)来确(que)定(ding)。其精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)主(zhu)要(yao)包括定(ding)位精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)、重复定(ding)位精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)和铣圆精(jing)度(du)(du)(du),特别是(shi)(shi)(shi)重复定(ding)位精(jing)度(du)(du)(du),它反(fan)映(ying)了坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的(de)定(ding)位稳定(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)(shi)衡量(liang)该轴(zhou)是(shi)(shi)(shi)否稳定(ding)可靠工(gong)作的(de)基本(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特别值(zhi)(zhi)得注意(yi)的(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi),选(xuan)型(xing)订货(huo)时必须全面分析,不(bu)能简单地看产品样(yang)本(ben)所(suo)列(lie)的(de)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi),因为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)、规定(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)、检测方法不(bu)同(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)(zhi)的(de)含义就不(bu)同(tong)。刊(kan)物、样(yang)本(ben)、合(he)格证所(suo)列(lie)出的(de)单位长度(du)(du)(du)上允许(xu)的(de)正负值(zhi)(zhi)(一般为正负0.05)常(chang)常(chang)是(shi)(shi)(shi)不(bu)明确(que)的(de),订货(huo)时要(yao)特别注意(yi),一定(ding)要(yao)弄(nong)清是(shi)(shi)(shi)IOS(国(guo)际(ji)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、VDI(德(de)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)机(ji)床(chuang)制(zhi)造商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)(shi)NAS(美国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))等,进而(er)分析各种不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)所(suo)规定(ding)的(de)检测计算方法和检测环境条件,才不(bu)会(hui)产生误(wu)解。

铣圆精(jing)度(du)是综(zong)合评价卧式加(jia)工中心有(you)关数控轴(zhou)的伺服跟随(sui)运(yun)动特性和(he)数控系统插补(bu)功能(neng)的主要指标(biao)之一。不论典(dian)型零(ling)件是否有(you)此(ci)需(xu)要,为了将来可能(neng)的需(xu)要及更好地(di)控制(zhi)精(jing)度(du),必(bi)须重视(shi)这一指标(biao)。

要特(te)别注意区别加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)与机(ji)床精度(du)两(liang)个不同的概(gai)念。将生产(chan)厂(chang)家样(yang)本(ben)上或(huo)产(chan)品合格证(zheng)上的位置精度(du)当(dang)作卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)的加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)是(shi)错误(wu)的。样(yang)本(ben)或(huo)合格证(zheng)上标(biao)明的位置精度(du)是(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身的精度(du),而加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)是(shi)包(bao)括卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)本(ben)身所(suo)允许误(wu)差在(zai)内的整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)系(xi)统(tong)各种因(yin)素所(suo)产(chan)生的误(wu)差总和。整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)系(xi)统(tong)误(wu)差产(chan)生的原因(yin)是(shi)很(hen)复杂的,很(hen)难用线(xian)性关系(xi)定量表(biao)达。选型时,可(ke)参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)序能(neng)力(li)系(xi)数Cp的评定方法来作为机(ji)床加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)的选型依(yi)据。一般而言,Cp应(ying)大(da)于1.33。

站内高精密(mi)的几(ji)款(kuan)卧式(shi)加工中心(xin):MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱(zhu)式(shi)卧式(shi)加工中心(xin)性能都(dou)不错。

建议(yi):采购(gou)用户在挑(tiao)选(xuan)不同(tong)精(jing)度(du)的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心时,需(xu)要考(kao)虑:不同(tong)标(biao)准对(dui)应的(de)单位长度(du)含义;重(zhong)视铣圆精(jing)度(du)指标(biao);区别加工(gong)精(jing)度(du)和机床精(jing)度(du)。

4我应该(gai)选(xuan)择哪种数(shu)控(kong)系统?——数(shu)控(kong)系统的选(xuan)定

数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)分为基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)与选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),可以从操作方(fang)式(shi)、用(yong)(yong)户(hu)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式(shi)、驱动形式(shi)、反馈(kui)形式(shi)、接口(kou)形式(shi)、检测与测量、报警与提示、故障诊断等方(fang)面(mian)综合衡量。基本(ben)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)是必须提供的(de),而只有当用(yong)(yong)户(hu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择了选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)后,厂(chang)(chang)家(jia)才会另行(xing)提供并另行(xing)加(jia)价(jia)(jia),且定价(jia)(jia)一(yi)般(ban)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总体(ti)而言(yan),数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)一(yi)定要(yao)根据加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择,订购时(shi)既要(yao)把需(xu)(xu)要(yao)的(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)订全,不(bu)能(neng)(neng)遗(yi)漏(lou),同时(shi)避(bi)免使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)率不(bu)高(gao)而造成(cheng)浪费,还需(xu)(xu)注意各功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)之间的(de)关联性(xing)。另一(yi)方(fang)面(mian),在可供选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)、国产华中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)高(gao)低差别很(hen)大,价(jia)(jia)格亦相差很(hen)大,进口(kou)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)亦决定其价(jia)(jia)格的(de)高(gao)低。总体(ti)上来看,法兰克(ke)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)(jia)比(bi)(bi)(bi)比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国内卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)比(bi)(bi)(bi)例比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站内卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)使(shi)(shi)用(yong)(yong)法兰克(ke)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)也比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)多,比(bi)(bi)(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)好(hao)的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择。多台卧式(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)同一(yi)厂(chang)(chang)家(jia)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),这样操作、编程(cheng)、维修都比(bi)(bi)(bi)较(jiao)(jiao)方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需要(yao)选择几(ji)台卧式加(jia)工中心能达(da)到的我的产(chan)量(liang)要(yao)求?——生产(chan)能力的估(gu)算

选型(xing)时(shi)(shi),必(bi)须要考虑(lv)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)能达(da)到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)能力(li),即要求选定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)在一(yi)年(nian)之内(nei)能加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)多少数(shu)量的(de)(de)零(ling)(ling)件。要得(de)到(dao)(dao)这(zhei)(zhei)些(xie)数(shu)据(ju)(ju)必(bi)须对每一(yi)种(zhong)确定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)(shi)和生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)节拍的(de)(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)般(ban)步骤为:首先,根据(ju)(ju)已选定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺分析(xi),初步确定(ding)(ding)一(yi)条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路(lu)线(xian),在这(zhei)(zhei)条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺路(lu)线(xian)中(zhong)选出(chu)(chu)准备(bei)在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第(di)二,根据(ju)(ju)现用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参(can)数(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)每道在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)单(dan)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间;第(di)三,由每个(ge)单(dan)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间计算(suan)出(chu)(chu)选定(ding)(ding)零(ling)(ling)件在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)上(shang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)总时(shi)(shi)间,进(jin)而计算(suan)出(chu)(chu)年(nian)产(chan)(chan)量即生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)能力(li)。如(ru)果估(gu)算(suan)结果达(da)不到(dao)(dao)目标值,但相差不大,则(ze)可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺参(can)数(shu)的(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)以调整;如(ru)果相差很大,则(ze)应考虑(lv)增加(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)配置。

建议:采(cai)购用户需要根据工(gong)件加(jia)工(gong)工(gong)时和生产节拍的估算(suan),决定卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)配(pei)备台数。

6卧(wo)式(shi)加工中心有好(hao)多选(xuan)配的附件(jian)我应该如何选(xuan)配?——其(qi)他功能部(bu)件(jian)及附件(jian)的选(xuan)定

(1)坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)和联动轴数(shu)

坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)数和联动轴(zhou)数均应满足(zu)典(dian)型零件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)要(yao)求。一(yi)般情况下,同厂(chang)家、同规格(ge)、同等精度的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心,增(zeng)加(jia)一(yi)个(ge)标准坐(zuo)标轴(zhou),价格(ge)约增(zeng)加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增(zeng)加(jia)坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)数可以强化(hua)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心的功(gong)能(neng),是(shi)机床上档次(ci)的标志(zhi)之一(yi),但最终还是(shi)要(yao)在工(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求和资(zi)金条件下平衡决定。

(2)工作台

卧式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中心可(ke)配(pei)置(zhi)用于(yu)分(fen)度的回转(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作台和数(shu)控(kong)回转(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作台,后(hou)者(zhe)能(neng)够(gou)实(shi)现任意分(fen)度,作为(wei)B轴(zhou)与其(qi)他轴(zhou)联动控(kong)制。回转(zhuan)工(gong)(gong)作台配(pei)置(zhi)与否以(yi)及如何配(pei)置(zhi)必须以(yi)实(shi)际需要来(lai)确定,以(yi)经济(ji)、实(shi)用为(wei)目(mu)的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的选(xuan)择(ze)主要考虑换刀时间与(yu)可(ke)靠性(xing)。过分强(qiang)调换刀时间会使(shi)(shi)加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的价格大(da)幅(fu)度(du)提高(gao)并使(shi)(shi)故障(zhang)率上升。据统(tong)计,加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)的故障(zhang)中(zhong)约有50%与(yu)ATC有关,因此,在(zai)满(man)足使(shi)(shi)用(yong)要求的前提下,尽量选(xuan)用(yong)可(ke)靠性(xing)高(gao)的ATC,以降(jiang)低故障(zhang)率和(he)整机成本

(4)必要的附件、配套件

选(xuan)型(xing)时,还(hai)应注意选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)(yi)些配套件及附(fu)件,尽(jin)量避免因缺少一(yi)(yi)个几(ji)万(wan)元就能购买(mai)的(de)附(fu)件而影(ying)响卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)正常运行。慎重选(xuan)择(ze)刀(dao)(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)也是(shi)保证(zheng)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心正常运行的(de)关键,最佳的(de)选(xuan)择(ze)办法应是(shi)根据典型(xing)零件所需(xu)的(de)品(pin)种和(he)数量来确定,并在使用(yong)(yong)中(zhong)(zhong)陆续(xu)添置(zhi)。在卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)构成中(zhong)(zhong),排屑装(zhuang)置(zhi)、防护装(zhuang)置(zhi)和(he)对(dui)(dui)刀(dao)(dao)装(zhuang)置(zhi) (如刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)预调(diao)仪(yi))等均是(shi)必需(xu)的(de),对(dui)(dui)一(yi)(yi)些尽(jin)管不是(shi)必需(xu)的(de)配套件,但如果价格不高,对(dui)(dui)使用(yong)(yong)带来很(hen)多方便,也应尽(jin)量选(xuan)用(yong)(yong),如附(fu)件铣头、储刀(dao)(dao)料架(jia)、运刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)车、装(zhuang)卸器等。

建议:配件越(yue)高,能(neng)实(shi)现(xian)的功能(neng)越(yue)多(duo),但(dan)价格也越(yue)贵,采购用(yong)户需要根据加工(gong)需求酌情(qing)选配。

7卧(wo)式加工中心(xin)选型时还有(you)什么其他(ta)需(xu)(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)(zhu)意(yi)的(de)?——需(xu)(xu)要(yao)注(zhu)(zhu)意(yi)的(de)一(yi)些问题

(1)结构设计

加(jia)工中心对其(qi)床身、立(li)柱(zhu)、工作(zuo)台、主(zhu)轴以(yi)(yi)及刀库等功能部件的(de)(de)结(jie)构设计有着很(hen)高(gao)的(de)(de)要(yao)求,以(yi)(yi)达到其(qi)高(gao)强度、高(gao)刚度、高(gao)抗(kang)振性和稳(wen)定性的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。选型时,应特别注意把其(qi)结(jie)构作(zuo)为一项(xiang)重要(yao)的(de)(de)具体内容来进行要(yao)求与考虑。

(2)功能与加工的适应性

虽然加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心可以(yi)进行(xing)钻(zuan)、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹(wen)乃至(zhi)车(che)(che)削 (如车(che)(che)铣复合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心)等多种(zhong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),但是在具体(ti)选择时,还应(ying)根(gen)据具体(ti)需要来(lai)考(kao)虑机床的(de)功(gong)能(neng)与加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)是否相适应(ying)等问题。要注意以(yi)下几点:

A、复杂(za)曲线(xian)加工时,要考(kao)虑CNC是否有所需(xu)要的(de)(de)曲线(xian)插补(bu)功能,或选(xuan)择什么方式逼近加工曲线(xian)并保证(zheng)所要求的(de)(de)表面粗糙(cao)度。三维加工时,要考(kao)虑选(xuan)择适合的(de)(de)刀具结构,还(hai)要考(kao)虑程(cheng)序编(bian)制能力,如(ru)有必要则必须配(pei)备自动(dong)编(bian)程(cheng)装置或后置处(chu)理编(bian)程(cheng)装置。

B、需要进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削 (非攻螺(luo)纹(wen)方(fang)式)时,不仅要看是否(fou)(fou)有螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削功(gong)能(neng)(neng)、螺(luo)旋线插补功(gong)能(neng)(neng)和主(zhu)轴(zhou)转动(dong)与进(jin)给(ji)同步功(gong)能(neng)(neng),还要考虑机床(chuang)是否(fou)(fou)有径向(xiang)进(jin)给(ji)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、是否(fou)(fou)有主(zhu)轴(zhou)在旋转方(fang)向(xiang)上任意角度位(wei)置(zhi)(zhi)准确定位(wei)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)。否(fou)(fou)则,仅在数控(kong)系统中用了螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削功(gong)能(neng)(neng)仍然无法进(jin)行螺(luo)纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)削C、采用金刚铰、浮动(dong)镗和挤压加工等(deng)(deng)特种加工时,既要考虑适宜(yi)的自动(dong)换刀(dao)(dao)的条件,又要考虑选择合适的刀(dao)(dao)具结构(gou)和切(qie)(qie)削用量,应尽可能(neng)(neng)在购(gou)买主(zhu)机时一并购(gou)置(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)分易损部(bu)件及其(qi)他附件等(deng)(deng)。

D、如果有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划,或要(yao)(yao)进行(xing)网络(luo)制造,则要(yao)(yao)注意通(tong)信(xin)功能,应选择(ze)具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络(luo)通(tong)信(xin)、CAN总线等接(jie)口的系统(tong)。

(3)运转的可靠(kao)性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用(yong)户(hu)在(zai)选型时,需(xu)要对卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心整体(ti)的结构设计、可(ke)靠性以(yi)及价加(jia)工适应性有(you)客观(guan)的认(ren)识(shi)。


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